REFERÊNCIAS

1. World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [citado 19 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

2. Guan W, Liang W, Zhao Y, Liang H, Chen Z, Li Y, et al. Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis. European Respiratory Journal [Internet]. 1o de janeiro de 2020 [citado 12 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/03/17/13993003.00547-2020

3. Zhao Q, Meng M, Kumar R, Wu Y, Huang J, Lian N, et al. The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID-19: A systemic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 15 de abril de 2020;

4. Oliveira da Silva AL, Costa Moreira J, Martins SR. COVID-19 e tabagismo: uma relação de risco. CSP [Internet]. maio de 2020;36(5). Disponível em: http://cadernos.ensp.fiocruz.br/csp/artigo/1060/covid-19-e-tabagismo-uma-relao-de-risco

5. Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva. Narguilé: o que sabemos? Stella Martins (elaboração). Rio de Janeiro: INCA, 2019, 100 p. ISBN 978-85-7318-382-5 (versão eletrônica) [Internet]. Disponível em:

https://www.inca.gov.br/sites/ufu.sti.inca.local/files//media/document//narguile-o-que-sabemos.pdf

6. COVID-19 e o tabagismo: por que os fumantes correm mais riscos? [Internet]. Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia. 2020 [citado 13 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://sbpt.org.br/portal/tabagismo-covid-sbpt/

7. Patanavanich R, Glantz SA. Smoking is Associated with COVID-19 Progression: A Meta-Analysis. medRxiv. 16 de abril de 2020;2020.04.13.20063669.

8. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 8 de novembro de 2004;164(20):2206–16.

9. Nam H-S, Park JW, Ki M, Yeon M-Y, Kim J, Kim SW. High fatality rates and associated factors in two hospital outbreaks of MERS in Daejeon, the Republic of Korea. Int J Infect Dis. maio de 2017;58:37–42.

10. Park J-E, Jung S, Kim A, Park J-E. MERS transmission and risk factors: a systematic review. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2 de maio de 2018 [citado 12 de maio de 2020];18. Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930778/

11. Liu W, Tao Z-W, Lei W, Ming-Li Y, Kui L, Ling Z, et al. Analysis of factors associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease. Chinese Medical Journal [Internet]. 3 de abril de 2020 [citado 6 de abril de 2020]; Publish Ahead of Print. Disponível em: https://journals.lww.com/cmj/Abstract/publishahead/Analysis_of_factors_associated_with_disease.99363.aspx

12. Berlin I, Thomas D, Le Faou A-L, Cornuz J. COVID-19 and Smoking. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 3 de abril de 2020 [citado 12 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184428/

13. Increased risk of COVID-19 infection amongst smokers and amongst waterpipe users [Internet]. WHO FCTC Secretariat’s Knowledge Hub on waterpipes. 2020 [citado 15 de abril de 2020]. Disponível em: https://untobaccocontrol.org/kh/waterpipes/covid-19/

14. Javelle E. Electronic cigarette and vaping should be discouraged during the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Arch Toxicol. 18 de abril de 2020;1–2.

15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Smoking & Tobacco Use. Smoking and Tobacco Use; Electronic Cigarettes. Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 [citado 19 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html

16. World Health Organization. Tobacco [Internet]. [citado 19 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco

17. Kalan ZBT, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Kenneth D Ward, Wasim. Maziak. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking – A Potential Conduit of COVID-19. 2020 [citado 19 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://vpha.org.vn/en/news/waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-a-potential-conduit-of-covid-19.html

18. Garg S, Deshmukh C. Tobacco: An invisible and immediate threat for COVID 19. Indian Journal of Community Health. 18 de abril de 2020;32(2 (Supp)):248–50.

19. Vardavas CI, Nikitara K. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis [Internet]. 20 de março de 2020 [citado 12 de maio de 2020];18(March). Disponível em: http://www.tobaccoinduceddiseases.org/COVID-19-and-smoking-A-systematic-review-of-the-evidence,119324,0,2.html

20. Li G, He X, Zhang L, Ran Q, Wang J, Xiong A, et al. Assessing ACE2 expression patterns in lung tissues in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. J Autoimmun [Internet]. 13 de abril de 2020 [citado 12 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152872/

21. Tay MZ, Poh CM, Rénia L, MacAry PA, Ng LFP. The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nat Rev Immunol. 28 de abril de 2020;

22. Brake SJ, Barnsley K, Lu W, McAlinden KD, Eapen MS, Sohal SS. Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: A Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). J Clin Med [Internet]. 20 de março de 2020;9(3). Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141517/

23. Leung JM, Yang CX, Tam A, Shaipanich T, Hackett T-L, Singhera GK, et al. ACE-2 Expression in the Small Airway Epithelia of Smokers and COPD Patients: Implications for COVID-19. Eur Respir J [Internet]. 8 de abril de 2020; Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144263/

24. Vardavas CI, Nikitara K. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis [Internet]. 20 de março de 2020 [citado 15 de abril de 2020];18(March). Disponível em: http://www.tobaccoinduceddiseases.org/COVID-19-and-smoking-A-systematic-review-of-the-evidence,119324,0,2.html

25. Hefler M, Editor N. Smoking history is an important risk factor for severe COVID-19 [Internet]. Blog – Tobacco Control. 2020 [citado 6 de abril de 2020]. Disponível em: https://blogs.bmj.com/tc/2020/04/05/smoking-history-is-an-important-risk-factor-for-severe-covid-19/

26. Guo FR. Active smoking is associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An update of a meta-analysis. Tob Induc Dis. 2020;18:37.

27. Olds JL, Kabbani N. Is nicotine exposure linked to cardiopulmonary vulnerability to COVID-19 in the general population? FEBS J [Internet]. 18 de março de 2020; Disponível em: https://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/febs.15303

28. Oakes JM, Fuchs RM, Gardner JD, Lazartigues E, Yue X. Nicotine and the renin-angiotensin system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 01 de 2018;315(5):R895–906.

29. Cardinale A, Nastrucci C, Cesario A, Russo P. Nicotine: specific role in angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis. Crit Rev Toxicol. janeiro de 2012;42(1):68–89.

30. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 1o de abril de 2020;8(4):420–2.

31. Liu Peter P., Blet Alice, Smyth David, Li Hongliang. The Science Underlying COVID-19: Implications for the Cardiovascular System. Circulation [Internet]. [citado 12 de maio de 2020];0(0). Disponível em: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047549

32. Cai G, Bossé Y, Xiao F, Kheradmand F, Amos CI. Tobacco Smoking Increases the Lung Gene Expression of ACE2, the Receptor of SARS-CoV-2. Am J Respir Crit Care Med [Internet]. 24 de abril de 2020 [citado 12 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.202003-0693LE

33. Rajendran P, Rengarajan T, Thangavel J, Nishigaki Y, Sakthisekaran D, Sethi G, et al. The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases. Int J Biol Sci. 9 de novembro de 2013;9(10):1057–69.

34. Csiszar A, Podlutsky A, Wolin MS, Losonczy G, Pacher P, Ungvari Z. Oxidative stress and accelerated vascular aging: implications for cigarette smoking. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 1o de janeiro de 2009;14:3128–44.

35. Förstermann U. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in vascular disease. Pflugers Arch. maio de 2010;459(6):923–39.

36. Bermudez EA, Rifai N, Buring JE, Manson JE, Ridker PM. Relation between markers of systemic vascular inflammation and smoking in women. Am J Cardiol. 1o de maio de 2002;89(9):1117–9.

37. Barbieri SS, Zacchi E, Amadio P, Gianellini S, Mussoni L, Weksler BB, et al. Cytokines present in smokers’ serum interact with smoke components to enhance endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 1o de junho de 2011;90(3):475–83.

38. Das I. Raised C-reactive protein levels in serum from smokers. Clin Chim Acta. 29 de novembro de 1985;153(1):9–13.

39. Cermak J, Key NS, Bach RR, Balla J, Jacob HS, Vercellotti GM. C-reactive protein induces human peripheral blood monocytes to synthesize tissue factor. Blood. 15 de julho de 1993;82(2):513–20.

40. Lee AJ, Fowkes GR, Lowe GD, Rumley A. Determinants of fibrin D-dimer in the Edinburgh Artery Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. agosto de 1995;15(8):1094–7.

41. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Blood Vessels and Endothelial Cells. Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th edition [Internet]. 2002 [citado 6 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26848/

42. Evora PRB, Baldo CF, Celotto AC, Capellini VK. Endothelium dysfunction classification: why is it still an open discussion? Int J Cardiol. 2 de outubro de 2009;137(2):175–6.

43. Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. The Lancet. 28 de março de 2020;395(10229):1033–4.

44. Mezger M, Nording H, Sauter R, Graf T, Heim C, von Bubnoff N, et al. Platelets and Immune Responses During Thromboinflammation. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1731.

45. Schulz C, Engelmann B, Massberg S. Crossroads of coagulation and innate immunity: the case of deep vein thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. junho de 2013;11 Suppl 1:233–41.

46. Zhang J-J, Dong X, Cao Y-Y, Yuan Y-D, Yang Y-B, Yan Y-Q, et al. Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy [Internet]. 19 de fevereiro de 2020; Disponível em: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/all.14238

47. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 28 de 2020;395(10229):1054–62.

48. Tang N, Bai H, Chen X, Gong J, Li D, Sun Z. Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy. J Thromb Haemost [Internet]. 27 de março de 2020; Disponível em: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jth.14817

49. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA [Internet]. 7 de fevereiro de 2020; Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042881/

50. COVID-19 and Coagulopathy – Hematology.org [Internet]. [citado 15 de abril de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.hematology.org:443/covid-19/covid-19-and-coagulopathy

51. Terpos E, Ntanasis‐Stathopoulos I, Elalamy I, Kastritis E, Sergentanis TN, Politou M, et al. Hematological findings and complications of COVID-19. American Journal of Hematology [Internet]. [citado 13 de maio de 2020];n/a(n/a). Disponível em: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajh.25829

52. Agusti Tellez Duarte. Is COVID-19 an Hematologic Disease? [Internet]. Reserchgate Discussion. 2020 [citado 13 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Is_COVID-19_an_Hematologic_Disease

53. “Silent Hypoxemia” and Clinical Observations in COVID-19 [Internet]. Medscape. [citado 13 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/928803

54. Ottestad W, Seim M, Mæhlen JO. COVID-19 with silent hypoxemia. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening [Internet]. 21 de abril de 2020 [citado 13 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://tidsskriftet.no/en/2020/04/kort-kasuistikk/covid-19-silent-hypoxemia

55. “Silent hypoxia” may be killing some COVID-19 patients. But there’s hope. | Live Science [Internet]. [citado 13 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.livescience.com/silent-hypoxia-killing-covid-19-coronavirus-patients.html

56. Fricker M, Goggins BJ, Mateer S, Jones B, Kim RY, Gellatly SL, et al. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure induces systemic hypoxia that drives intestinal dysfunction. JCI Insight [Internet]. [citado 13 de maio de 2020];3(3). Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5821186/

57. Astrup Poul. Carbon Monoxide, Smoking, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 1o de dezembro de 1973;48(6):1167–8.

58. Recurrent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Due to Smoking Leading to Cognitive Decline – CHEST [Internet]. [citado 13 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(16)56635-5/fulltext

59. Sandberg A, Sköld CM, Grunewald J, Eklund A, Wheelock ÅM. Assessing recent smoking status by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28864.

60. Milman N, Pedersen AN. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers: should we adjust the reference range? Ann Hematol. julho de 2009;88(7):687–94.

61. George P. Effects of smoking on cardiovascular function: the role of nicotine and carbon monoxide. Health Science Journal [Internet]. 2014 [citado 13 de maio de 2020];8(2). Disponível em: https://www.hsj.gr/abstract/effects-of-smoking-on-cardiovascular-function-the-role-of-nicotine-and-carbon-monoxide-2732.html

62. Secondary Polycythemia Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes [Internet]. [citado 13 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/205039-clinical

63. Eltzschig HK, Carmeliet P. Hypoxia and Inflammation. New England Journal of Medicine. 17 de fevereiro de 2011;364(7):656–65.

64. Magro C, Mulvey JJ, Berlin D, Nuovo G, Salvatore S, Harp J, et al. Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: a report of five cases. Transl Res [Internet]. 15 de abril de 2020; Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158248/

65. Jose RJ, Manuel A. COVID-19 cytokine storm: the interplay between inflammation and coagulation. Lancet Respir Med [Internet]. 27 de abril de 2020 [citado 13 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185942/

66. Zhang C, Wu Z, Li J-W, Zhao H, Wang G-Q. The cytokine release syndrome (CRS) of severe COVID-19 and Interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) antagonist Tocilizumab may be the key to reduce the mortality. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 29 de março de 2020;105954.

67. Pamukcu B, Oflaz H, Onur I, Cimen A, Nisanci Y. Effect of cigarette smoking on platelet aggregation. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. dezembro de 2011;17(6):E175-180.

68. Barua Rajat S., Sy Fridolin, Srikanth Sundararajan, Huang Grace, Javed Usman, Buhari Cyrus, et al. Effects of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Clot Dynamics and Fibrin Structure. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 1o de janeiro de 2010;30(1):75–9.

69. Nielsen VG, Hafner DT, Steinbrenner EB. Tobacco smoke-induced hypercoagulation in human plasma: role of carbon monoxide. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. junho de 2013;24(4):405–10.

70. Pretorius E, Oberholzer HM, van der Spuy WJ, Meiring JH. Smoking and coagulation: the sticky fibrin phenomenon. Ultrastruct Pathol. agosto de 2010;34(4):236–9.

71. Tapson VF. The role of smoking in coagulation and thromboembolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2005;2(1):71–7.

72. Reduce your risk of serious lung disease caused by corona virus by quitting smoking and vaping [Internet]. Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education. [citado 12 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://tobacco.ucsf.edu/reduce-your-risk-serious-lung-disease-caused-corona-virus-quitting-smoking-and-vaping

73. Alerta do INCA à população sobre tabagismo e coronavírus [Internet]. INCA – Instituto Nacional de Câncer. 2020 [citado 12 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.inca.gov.br/publicacoes/notas-tecnicas/alerta-do-inca-populacao-sobre-tabagismo-e-coronavirus

74. Alerta do INCA sobre os riscos do tabagismo e do uso e compartilhamento do narguilé para infecção pelo coronavírus (Covid – 19) [Internet]. INCA – Instituto Nacional de Câncer. 2020 [citado 12 de maio de 2020]. Disponível em: https://www.inca.gov.br/publicacoes/notas-tecnicas/alerta-do-inca-sobre-os-riscos-do-tabagismo-e-do-uso-e-compartilhamento

75. Eisenberg S-L, Eisenberg MJ. Smoking Cessation During the COVID-19 Epidemic. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. [citado 12 de maio de 2020]; Disponível em: https://academic.oup.com/ntr/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ntr/ntaa075/5828549

76. Morita H, Ikeda H, Haramaki N, Eguchi H, Imaizumi T. Only two-week smoking cessation improves platelet aggregability and intraplatelet redox imbalance of long-term smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 15 de fevereiro de 2005;45(4):589–94.

77. Johnson HM, Gossett LK, Piper ME, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Baker TB, et al. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Endothelial Function: One-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 4 de maio de 2010;55(18):1988–95.

78. Wannamethee SG, Lowe GDO, Shaper AG, Rumley A, Lennon L, Whincup PH. Associations between cigarette smoking, pipe/cigar smoking, and smoking cessation, and haemostatic and inflammatory markers for cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J. setembro de 2005;26(17):1765–73.

Compartilhar em: